ASNE DAY '86 'Naval Engineering Challenges
M a y 1-2, W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. ASNE Day 1986, the 98th annual national convention of the American Society of Naval Engineers, will be held May 1-2 at the Omni Shoreham Hotel in Washington, D.C., and will feature technical sessions, exhibits, an awards banquet, and other social functions.
At 9 am on Thursday, May 1, the ASNE Day keynote address will be delivered by the U.S. Navy's current head "surface warrior," Vice Adm. Joseph Metcalf I I I , USN, Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Surface Warfare).
This year's technical program will feature 20 papers presented during eight separate sessions. Topics will include combat systems, command and control, ship design I and II, testing and reliability, hazardous materials, maintenance, and marine engineering.
The luncheon address on Thursday will be delivered by Robert C. McFarlane, former national security advisor to President Reagan.
On Friday evening, the 69th Annual Awards Banquet convenes in the Shoreham's Regency Ballroom. Guest speaker at the banquet will be Lt. Gen. James A. Abrahamson, USAF, Director of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Department of Defense. General Abrahamson is responsible for the research and technology development program relating to defense against ballistic missiles.
ASNE A w a r ds The remainder of the banquet program will consist of presentations of several honors, including: • The " J i m m i e " Hamilton Award, presented to the author(s) of the original technical paper of greatest value and significance to naval engineering and published in the Naval Engineers Journal during the award year; • The Frank Law Award, which recognizes unselfish contribution of time, energy, and talent to the Society over a sustained period; • The Solberg Award, given annually to the U.S. citizen who has made the most significant contribution to naval engineering through personal research carried out during or culminating in the three-year period ending in the year of consideration; • The Gold Medal Award, which is given annually to the U.S. citizen who, in the field of naval engineering, has made the most significant engineering contribution through personal effort, or through the direction of others, during or culminating in the five-year period ending in the year of consideration; • The Harold E. Saunders Award, presented annually to the U.S. citizen who has demonstrated productivity, growth, and outstanding accomplishment in the field of naval engineering over the years, with ultimate wide recognition by his peers as a leader in the field and of such prestige as to merit acclamation by the naval engineering community. More than 150 companies, military commands, and other organizations will exhibit their products, services, and capabilities. These displays and demonstrations will represent state-of-the-art technology and the latest developments of the industry that supports the development, construction, and outfitting of military and commercial vessels. Also represented will be the military laboratories and other commands that direct the programs and projects engaged in expanding and modernizing the U.S. Navy Fleet.
TECHNICAL PROGRAM Thursday, May 1 9:00 am—Keynote address by Vice Adm. Joseph Metcalf III, USN, Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Surface Warfare).
Session 1A—Palladian Room Combat Systems I Moderator: Rear Adm. Lowell J. Holloway, USN Assistant: Cdr. William F. Bassett, USN 9:45 am—"An Experimental Ex- pert Weapon Direction System," by Robert L. Stewart and Douglas R. Ousborne.
This paper discusses, in terms of general weapon systems operations, special requirements of real-time tactical situations, and a functioning experimental expert weapon direction system, a research project that addresses the efficacy of expert systems techniques for improving effectiveness of missile employments from Navy surface ships. The authors provide an overview of the current weapon direction system and associated missile employment operation as a basis for discussing timing and coordination requirements. The paper concludes with a report on preliminary results from testing the experimental expert system at the engagement system landbased test site in Laurel, Md., and a summary of future plans.
10:30 am—"Master Ordnance Repair Applied: Standard Item 009- 67," by William A. Stimson, Cdr. Michael T. Marsh, USN, and Lt. Cdr. Richard M. Uttich, USN.
The 600-ship U.S. Navy offers private shipyards an unprecedented opportunity for overhaul of surface combatants with complex combat systems. Recognizing the new challenge associated with the overhaul of high-technology combat systems in the private sector, the Navy in 1983 established the master ordnance repair (MOR) program, which was designed to identify and qualify those companies and private shipyards technically capable of managing combat systems work and conducting combat system testing. The MOR program has had a limited effect to date because the role of the MOR company is nebulous and subservient to the prime contractor. The Navy is represented in a private shipyard by the supervisor of shipbuilding, conversion and repair. As he talks only to the prime contractor, the Navy has until now no effective means to establish a proper MOR role.
Standard Item 009-67 is the solution to this dilemma. Standard items establish uniform methods for requirements of ship repair and become part of the contract when they are invoked in the ship repair work package. This standard item describes to the Navy planner how to estimate the size of the MOR team appropriate in the work package, a feature that will insure that combat system bids are tailored to a specific availability.
Session IB—Diplomat Room Marine Engineering Moderator: Vice Adm. James H. Webber, USN Assistant: James L. Corder 9:45 am—"Composite Shafting for Naval Propulsion Systems," by GeorgeF. Wilhelmi, William M. Appleman, and Dr. Francis T.C. Loo 10:30 am—"Application of Alternate Cargo Pumping Systems in Naval Auxiliary Ship Designs," by Alfred D. Issacson and John J. Kron Jr.
The design of Navy auxiliary ships can benefit from the application of modern commercial tanker pumping systems practices. Navy auxiliaries that are outfitted for underway replenishment traditionally have at least one pumproom, and the designs are based upon a conventional pumproom-type cargo system with horizontal or vertical centrifuge cargo pumps. Each cargo tank has a dedicated suction line leading to the cargo pumps. In contrast, the latest commercial product tankers, especially lighters, that most closely resemble Navy auxiliaries in the manner in which they carry liquid cargoes, have been built with in-tank deepwell or submersible cargo pumps, thereby eliminating the pumproom. The application of this type of pumping system reduces the size of the ship considerably, thereby resulting in reduction of required propulsive power and fuel consumption as well as a dramatic reduction in construction cost.
The paper discusses the three most common pumping system designs, with variations of each, and illustrates the differences in the systems and their effect on the design of an auxiliary ship.
Noon-2:15 pm—Reception and Luncheon, Regency Ballroom; "Jimmie" Hamilton Award and luncheon address by Robert C.
McFarlane, former national security advisor.
Session 2A-Palladian Room Ship Design I Moderator: Robert G. Keane Jr. Assistant: Edward N. Comstock 2:30 pm—"An Integrated Hull Design— Performance and Producibilit y , " by Sigurdur Ingvason, Donald N. McCallum, and Capt. Gilbert L. Kraine, USCG (Ret.). Recent European innovations in hull form design have highlighted the savings that can be achieved in ship powering requirements by hull modifications, principally at the bow and stern. Designs of one of the authors, Mr. Ingvason, are described and discussed. His twinskeg, integrated hull design concept, which combines good hydrodynamic features with producibility, is analyzed by model testing in comparison to a recent U.S. Navy tanker design, the T-AO-187 Class. Gains on the order of 15 percent at the ship's design speed are predicted. Major producibility concepts and features are also discussed. These concepts capitalize on the experience of several Swedish shipyards. 3:15 pm—"Ship Design Computer Programs—An Interpolative Approach," by Kenneth S. Brower and Kenneth W. Walker.
Naval ship design synthesis computer programs, the original development of which was pioneered by the U.S. Navy, are now used by the Navy to conduct feasibility design studies and to conduct reverse engineering analyses of foreign ships.
The use of these computer programs has substantially reduced the time and cost of conducting feasibility design trade-off studies and has allowed the ship design to develop very accurate design solutions that can be effectively used as the basis for preliminary and contract design. The paper describes an interpolative technique for the ship design that the authors have developed and incorporated in a variety of ship design synthesis computer programs. This interpolative technique shortcuts the classic and time-consuming design spiral approach to conducting ship design studies. 4:00 pm—"Structural Design Methods for Surface Ships Operating at the Ice Edge," by James R. Meyer and James St. John.
Commercial oil exploration in the Arctic has stimulated a wealth of research programs on ice conditions, ice properties, and ice interaction with both structures and ships over the past 10 to 15 years. While much of the commercial research has been proprietary, many fine papers have been written to put some of the information into the public domain. Government agencies such as the Maritime Administration, the Ship Structure Committee, and the Canadian Ministry of Transport have sponsored multiyear programs to gather valuable data pertinent to ship design in the Arctic, both to stimulate domestic shipbuilding and provide regulatory guidelines. This paper attempts to bring together appropriate pieces of this research to address the ship design problem for a vessel operating at the ice edge.
Session 2B—Diplomat Room Maintenance Moderator: Capt. Donald L. Hoffer, USCG Assistant: Capt. James W. Kehoe Jr., USN (Ret.) 2:30 pm—"Assessment of Remaining Useful Life of Ship Service Turbine Generator Steam Chests," by J.D. Byron, S.R. Paterson, R.R. Proctor, and T.J. Feiereisen. During the recent overhaul of an aircraft carrier, cracks were found in many of the eight ship service turbine generators. These units have had a history of cracking in the steam chest and steam passages as do other carriers. In the past, the cracks were ground and the units returned to service. During this overhaul, an in-depth analysis of the cracking problem was conducted that included: a detailed inspection of the units, a review of the startup procedure and comparison of it to industry practice, a test of thermocouples, a nonlinear stress and fracture mechanics analysis, and a recommendation for revised repair or operating procedures.
The results of this work showed that cracking would be confined and would not extend to a critical size prior to the next overhaul period, cracks need not be removed, and, in fact, removal of cracks would result in a degraded remaining service life. Results also showed that the life could be significantly enhanced with the use of a steam bypass to preheat the steam chest before startup.
3:15 pm—"An Expert System for Real-time Noise and Vibration Analysis of Shipboard Equipment," by Steven K. Klein, Jeannine A. Vail, and Kevin Balon.
This paper describes an expert system that allows real-time analysis of the noise and vibration signature of vibrating machinery. The system presented consists of an adaptive algorithm that varies the bank width of analysis channels as a function of a signal complexity factor and a measure of the rapidity of local signal change. Overall program architecture is presented as well as detailed discussion of signature functional identification and statistical trend modules that are adaptable to a wide variety of input database configurations.
The paper presents results of a program execution on Navy hydrophone and propulsion gas turbine data showing current signature projections of trend to future times compared with failed condition signatures, and discusses correlation results for such predictions. 4:00 pm—"A Computer-Integrated Engineering System for Design & Life Cycle Management," by Glen H. Nickodemus and Irwin D. Yanus.
This paper examines a life cycle management program applicable to weapons systems, ships, and other multi-disciplined systems. A computer- integrated engineering system is presented that provides unique features for the design and configuration control functions of life cycle management. The system stores all engineering data in a relational database. Drawings are a subject of the engineering database and are not generated separately. Individual application databases define and process information necessary for specific discipline evaluations. Interface modules between the application databases and the engineering database insure that the entered data are complete, consistent, compatible, and in compliance with requirements. Conflicts are immediately identified and efficiently resolved, and logistic support activities are significantly simplified. The system also achieves cost reductions by reducing the number of design iterations, reducing the effort to implement changes, reducing storage and retrieval requirements, and reducing the need for ship checks prior to the modifications and alterations. Friday, May 2 Session 3A—Palladian Room Combat Systems II: Command & Control Moderator: Capt. James R. Williams, USN Assistant: James F. Horton 9:30 am—"A System Engineering Approach for Navy C2 Applications," by Daniel E. Donovan and Charles A. Lacijan.
This paper emphasizes the importance of structured system engineering in complex communications (C) architectures. The focus is on acquisition of Navy command and control (C2) programs. Many weapon, combat, and communication systems are acquired independently, with nominal consideration of interoperability or compatibility with other programs. Lack of authoritative guidance, discipline, and support is offered as a primary cause of this situation.
The paper begins with a discussion of the requirements for and the benefits of system engineering. A classic approach is described. The Navy's action to implement structured C2 system engineerig is addressed. Technical sophistication in platforms, sensors, weapons, and electronics is identified as the primary reason for renewed emphasis on system engineering.
10:15 am—"Advanced Graphics for Command Displays," by F. Jennings Willey and David W. Nesbitt.
Application of computer graphics to tactical displays should not default to simplistic expectations or to clever uses of color. Under the sponsorship of the Aegis shipbuilding project, we have defined a method of applying advanced graphics techniques to command displays that asks "What is the display to do?" rather than "What color shall we make it?" The target display is the Aegis display system tactical plot, or track picture. This display has evolved to include graphic elements representing the environment, combat system capabilities, and battle plans. If these elements are all needed in the same display, the resulting picture has the potential for great complexity.
This paper provides a method for designing uncluttered displays that contain the needed amounts of data. The method develops displays from primary system requirements and includes a computer program (a rule-based system) that assigns hardware attributes (including gray scale, color, and area fill) to components of the picture (display elements). The resultant display is data-intensive but not overwhelmingly complex.
11:00 am—"System Concept and Criteria for Battle Group Decision Making," by David Abraham.
The command and control system problem associated with the battle group, an ad hoc assemblage of naval resources with the mission of achieving a predetermined objective as assigned by higher authority, is discussed. After restatement of the problem, criteria for evaluating system concepts are proposed, with emphasis placed on combat environments. The paper presents a concept for development of a battle group com- mand and control system consistent with existing command philosophy and functional partition. The philosophic principle is command by exception in a multihierarchical structure. Functional partition into warfare areas such as ASW, AAW, and ASUW provides the basis for the multiple branches of the hierarchy. Session 3B—Diplomat Room Testing & Reliability Moderator: Capt. James G. Burritt, USN Assistant: Bruce H. Barber 9:30 am—"Reliability of Shipboard Elevators—There Is Hope for Improvement," by William C.
Compton, Theodore C. Anderer, and Frederice A. Heinze.
The history of Navy cargo/weapons elevator installations reveals wide variety of equipment sizes and configurations developed by numerous vendors working to different performance specifications for each contract. The result has been poor reliability, a proliferation of spare parts requirements, and logistic and maintenance nightmares. To correct this, NAVSEA has initiated a program to develop and test improved, standardized designs. The improvements include standard capacities and speeds, lightweight construction, and easy removability for maintenance. This is being accomplished through standard drawings and detailed, as opposed to performance, specifications. But the key to the success of this effort is to design and test for reliability, maintainability, and safety.
10:15 am—"Electronic Module Design Evaluation by Thermal Imaging Analysis," by Kip O. Hoffer, Thomas W. Shaw, and Larry D. Robertson.
Thermal imaging (thermography) is a noncontact measurement technique that can determine the temperature of an object by measuring the amount of infrared radiation generated by the object. As it is a noncontact method of temperature measurement, thermal imaging is useful in almost any situation where the surfaces to be measured are in motion, electrically hot, changing temperature rapidly, or where a contact measurement would tend to upset a thermal balance.
This paper reviews the work being done at the Naval Weapons Support Center in Crane, Ind., in the areas of thermal imaging and thermal design verification of electronic modules. 11:00 am—"Ship Systems Test Process—Concept and Application," by Capt. David B. McGuigan, USN (Ret.) and William J.
Some technical managers are moving closer to a more disciplined approach when introducing ship systems into the fleet. In the past, many systems were installed with inadequate testing. The consequences show in impaired performance and system down-time.
Thorough, cohesive and wellmanaged testing will insure operationally ready ship systems. However, the technical manager must consider testing as an integral process of engineering and design. He can do this if he uses the total systems approach. Program management is adaptable to testing. In a test program, facilities, fuel, and manpower are significant cost factors. The technical manager can minimize test costs, however, and still use a facility that adequately meets his needs. He must be creative and innovative, and introduce techniques to reduce testing time and costs.
S e s s i o n 4A—Palladian Room Ship D e s i g n II Moderator: C. Lincoln Crane Jr. Assistant: Terrence R. Applebee 2 : 3 0 pm— " D e v e l o p m e n t in SWATH Technology," by S. K.
Gupta and T. W. Schmidt.
It has been more than two decades since SWATH technology development began in earnest, and it is no longer an "emerging" technology. SWATH ships are now stateof- the-art and the technology has come of age. With the construction of the 3,500-ton Kaiyo in Japan, SWATH vessels have moved from prototypes and demonstrators to modern, high-performance working vessels.
A number of new design techniques have been developed that enhance the seakeeping and maneuvering capability of these ships.
Other concepts currently being developed include producibility improvements, structural design manuals, cost and weight estimation standards, and performance predictions based on scale models. A synthesis computer program has been developed for conceptually design based on existing SWATH ships and designs.
3:15 pm—"Simplified Approaches for Evaluation of Maneuverability of Ships," by Dr. Volf Asinovsky. His paper is devoted to the consideration of simplified engineering methods for use in the practice of design and improvement of ship maneuverability. The dependence of the characteristics of maneuverability on the position of the center of pressure along the length of the ship's hull is shown. The paper gives a technique for the estimation of maneuverability during ahead and astern operations based on an analysis of the center or pressure position. It also discusses the physical reasons for loss of steering during astern operation, and reviews methods based on the use of the diagram of steering. A simple engineering method is given for calculation of the diagram of steering.
Session 4B—Diplomat Room Hazardous Materials Moderator: Rear Adm. John W.
Kime, USCG Assistant: Thomas H. Vodicka 2:30 pm—"Shipboard Stowage of Flammable and Combustible Liquids," by Michael V. Dropik.
The uncontrolled proliferation of flammables and combustibles aboard ship, in addition to posing an obvious fire and explosion hazard, has seriously degraded the survivability and increased the vulnerability characteristics of U.S. Navy surface ships. This problem for the most part has been superficially attributed to a widespread shortage of flammable and combustible stowage capacity. As a result, current solutions have been limited to increasing stowage capability through additional storerooms and development of more efficient stowage aids. Unfortunately, these solutions simply address the symptoms, are of a corrective nature, and do not eliminate the fundamental causes of the problem.
This paper conducts a more systematic and comprehensive investigation into identifying and resolving the flammable liquids problem by considering it from ship life cycle perspective.
3:15 pm—"The In-Tank Oil/ Water Separator," by Norman B. Willner and Kevin D. Daigneault. Recently enacted public law and international treaties prohibit the discharge of oily wastes from oceangoing ships. To comply with these laws, the U.S. Navy and the Department of Defense have issued a directive implementing standards for the prevention of oil pollution from Navy ships.
Because of unique equipment and system design requirements for combatant and auxiliary ships in the U.S. Navy, research and development was initiated to develop oil/ water separator systems. Over the past 10 years, three systems were developed that met the Navy's requirements and are currently installed aboard Navy ships.
Recently, a new generation of oil/ water separator was conceived. Using existing oil coalescing theory and equipment already in the fleet, an in-tank oil/water separator (ITOWS) was developed. This new separator, installed aboard a naval combatant for testing, has met or exceeded all system requirements. Following a satisfactory operational evaluation by an independent U.S. Navy test command, the ITOWS will be specified for installation aboard new U.S. Navy ships.
For additional information about the technical presentations, exhibits, awards, or registration information, contact ASNE Headquarters, 1452 Duke Street, Alexandria, Va„ 22314; (703) 836-6727.